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古道公益 发表于 2020-1-27 02:00:24
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作者劳里·加勒特(Laurie Garrett)是美国外交关系委员会(Council on Foreign Relations)前全球卫生高级研究员、普利策奖(Pulitzer Prize)获奖科学作家。
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随着新型武汉冠状病毒不仅遍及中国大陆,而且遍及全球,人们的恐慌情绪正在上升。在中国内部,人们越来越无助,政府采取严厉措施制止该病毒,包括实行一些出行限制。许多人惊恐询问:“我们如何保护自己和家人?”
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由于没有针对nCoV2019(俗称“武汉肺炎”)的疫苗和治疗方法,并且感染已在全国蔓延,因此政府被迫转而使用2003年SARS手册。这意味着必须切断整个城市,必须限制该国人口的迁徙和潜在的疾病传播行为。

我知道人们很害怕,我预计未来几天恐慌情绪会上升。但是非常简单的措施可以保护您,以下是最重要的知识:
1.离开家时,请戴手套(冬天的手套或户外手套)。

2.如果你处于一个社交场合,不得不摘下手套握手或吃饭,此时无论有多痒请不要触摸你的脸或眼睛。手一定不要接触你的脸!在你戴上手套之前,请用肥皂和温水彻底洗手,搓洗手指!然后再戴上手套。

3.每天更换手套,彻底清洗手套,避免戴湿手套。

4.距离比口罩更重要。我远离人群,并且与个人保持距离0.5米,这是一个很好的标准。如果有人咳嗽或打喷嚏,请他们戴上口罩,以保护我免受潜在污染液体的伤害。如果他们拒绝,我就离他们1米远,或者离开。不要握手或拥抱别人,在流行病期间避免亲密接触。

5.在家庭内部,每个人只能使用自己的毛巾,切勿触摸其他家庭成员的毛巾。每周洗两次并晒干,潮湿的毛巾为病毒提供了绝佳的土壤,例如普通感冒、流感和冠状病毒。

6.小心门把手。如果可以尽量用手肘或肩膀打开或关闭门!戴上手套转动门把手或触摸后请洗手。如果你家里有人生病了,就更要经常洗你的门把手!同样,要小心扶手、电脑、手机等任何设备。触摸物品后要洗手,特别是别人的设备!

7.在家里请选择分餐,在外避免使用卫生习惯较差的餐厅。

8.绝对不要购买、屠宰或食用任何活的动物或鱼类,直到知道该病毒的来源。

9.如果天气允许,请打开窗户通风,病毒不能在通风良好的地方存活。当然,如果天气寒冷或恶劣,也要注意要保暖并关上窗户。

10.最后,如果您正在照顾发烧的病人,则在靠近病人时,请始终佩戴医用口罩,病人也要戴口罩。当您为病人更换旧的口罩时,请务必小心并保护自己。该口罩已被病毒覆盖,要戴上乳胶手套进行处理,将其放在一次性容器里,将其密封,然后将其放入垃圾桶。当您照顾病人时,请穿长袖衬衫和衣服,以遮盖您的身体。用热肥皂水彻底清洗患者所穿或接触的所有物品,包括床单、毛巾和器皿。如果您有空间,请将病人隔离在一个房间或房间的一角,让他们感到舒适,但要与家庭中的其他人分开。保持室内通风。当然,如果天气很冷,请不要这样做。

中国政府将在接下来的几周内采取严厉行动,这对中国人民来说将是一个艰难的时期。随着病毒在其他国家的传播,可能会采取类似严厉的措施来减缓这种流行病的流行。但是,有了这些简单的预防措施,如果您的家人、同事和学校的每个人都采取这种措施,将大大减少该病毒的传播。

注意安全。不要惊慌。采取常识性的预防措施。这段时间令人恐惧,您将度过难关。
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古道公益的义工里,有许多医护人员,在此感谢你们,特别是急诊科、传染科等身处一线的医生护士义工们,请多保重,需要支持的请向团队说明!在这非常时期,对武汉人,对湖北人,对所有同胞,请伸出援手,用医学的手段救治他们,而不是用物理的手段拒他们于千里之外!

本文小编对原文做了些许简略与更改,详情请查看原文,不足与错误之处请谅解。



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发表于 2020-1-27 02:03:37 |显示全部楼层
原文链接:
https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/01/25/wuhan-coronavirus-safety-china/
The Wuhan Virus: How to Stay SafeAs China’s epidemic continues to spread, things may seem scary. Here are ten simple precautions that can protect you from contracting the coronavirus.[size=0.7em]BY LAURIE GARRETT | JANUARY 25, 2020, 2:47 PM

As the new Wuhan coronavirus has spread not only all over mainland China, but also worldwide, panic is rising. Inside China there is a growing sense of helplessness, as the government is compelled to take drastic measures to stop the virus, including introducing some travel restrictions in Beijing. I have received panicked queries from journalists and public health workers in China, asking, “How can we protect ourselves and our families?”

The epidemic could have been controlled fairly easily three weeks ago had there been more openness, swift action, and no attempted cover-up. But now it’s too late, and this virus is spreading globally. Because there is no vaccine or treatment for nCoV2019—the Wuhan pneumonia—and infection has spread throughout China, the government is forced to turn to its 2003 SARS playbook. And that means entire cities must be cut off, and the population of the nation must be restricted in its movements and potential disease-spreading behavior. It is not surprising then that travel out of Beijing may be forbidden; the entire mainland could go on lockdown soon.

I know people are very frightened. And I expect panic will rise in the coming days. But very simple measures can protect you.

During the SARS epidemic, I traveled all over China and Hong Kong, interviewed people infected with the virus, doctors and nurses treating the disease, government officials, police—everybody. I was never concerned that I would become infected, despite being in the room with sick individuals. And that’s because I knew what precautions to take. Here are the most important ones to know:

1. When you leave your home, wear gloves—winter mittens or outdoor gloves—and keep them on in subways, buses, and public spaces.

2. If you are in a social situation where you should remove your gloves, perhaps to shake hands or dine, do not touch your face or eyes, no matter how much something itches. Keep your hands away from contact with your face. And before you put your gloves back on, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water, scrubbing the fingers. Put your gloves on.

3. Change gloves daily, washing them thoroughly, and avoid wearing damp gloves.

4. Masks are useless when worn outdoors and may not be very helpful even indoors. Most masks deteriorate after one or two wearings. Using the same mask day after day is worse than useless—it’s disgusting, as the contents of your mouth and nose eventually coat the inside of the mask with a smelly veneer that is attractive to bacteria. I rarely wear a face mask in an epidemic, and I have been in more than 30 outbreaks. Instead, I stay away from crowds, and I keep my distance from individual people—a half meter, about 1.5 feet, is a good standard. If someone is coughing or sneezing, I ask them to put on a mask—to protect me from their potentially contaminated fluids. If they decline, I step a meter (about 3 feet) away from them, or I leave. Don’t shake hands or hug people—politely beg off, saying it’s better for both of you not to come in close contact during an epidemic.

5. Inside your household, remove all of the towels from your bathrooms and kitchen immediately, and replace them with clean towels that have the names of each family member on them. Instruct everybody in your home to only use their own towels and never touch another family member’s. Wash all towels twice a week. Damp towels provide terrific homes for viruses, like common colds, flus, and, yes, coronaviruses.

6. Be careful with doorknobs. If it’s possible to open and close doors using your elbows or shoulders, do so. Wear gloves to turn a doorknob—or wash your hands after touching it. If anybody in your home takes sick, wash your doorknobs regularly. Similarly, be cautious with stairway banisters, desktops, cell phones, toys, laptops—any objects that are hand-held. As long as you handle only your own personal objects, you will be ok—but if you need to pick up someone else’s cell phone or cooking tools or use someone else’s computer keyboard, be mindful of not touching your face and wash your hands immediately after touching the object.

7. If you share meals, do not use your personal chopsticks and utensils to remove food from a serving bowl or plate and, of course, tell your children to never drink out of anybody else’s cups or from a container of shared fluid. It is customary in China to prepare several dishes for a meal and then allow everybody at the table to use their personal chopsticks to pull food from the common dishes: Don’t do this until the epidemic is over. Place serving spoons in each dish and instruct everybody at the table to scoop what they want from the serving dishes onto their personal plates or bowls, return the serving spoon to the main dish, and then use their personal chopsticks only to pick food from their personal plate or bowl into their mouth. Wash all food and kitchenware thoroughly between meals and avoid restaurants that have poor hygiene practices.

8. Absolutely do not buy, slaughter, or consume any live animal or fish until it is known what species was the source of the virus.

9. When the weather allows, open your windows at home or work, letting your space air out. The virus cannot linger in a well-ventilated space. But of course, if it is cold or the weather is inclement, keep warm and close those windows.

10. Finally, if you are caring for a friend or family member who is running a fever, always wear a tight-fitting mask when you are near them, and place one on the ailing person (unless they are nauseated). When you replace an old, dirty mask from the face of your friend or loved one be very, very careful—assume, for the sake of your protection, that it is covered in viruses, and handle it while wearing latex gloves, place it inside of a disposable container, seal it, and then put it in the trash. While wearing those latex gloves, gently wash the patient’s face with warm soap and water, using a disposable paper towel or cotton swab, and seal it after use in a container or plastic bag before placing it in your household trash. Wear long-sleeved shirts and clothing that covers your body when you are caring for your ailing friend or relative. Clean everything your patient wears or touches very thoroughly in hot soapy water, including sheets, towels, and utensils. If you have space, isolate the sick person in your household in a room, or a corner of a room, where they are comfortable, but separated from the rest of the household. If the weather is tolerable, open a window that is on the opposite side of the room, so that air gently blows past the patient’s face and then outdoors. Of course, don’t do this if it is very cold, as your friend or loved one will be made sicker if uncomfortably cold.

The Chinese government will take very drastic actions over the next few weeks, and this will be a time of hardship for the Chinese people. As the virus spreads in other countries, similarly draconian measures may be invoked to slow the epidemic. But with these simple precautions, if taken by everybody in your household, building, office, and school, you will dramatically reduce the spread of the virus and bring the outbreak to its knees.

Be safe. Do not panic. Take commonsense precautions. As frightening as this time is, you will get through it.


Laurie Garrett is a former senior fellow for global health at the Council on Foreign Relations and a Pulitzer Prize winning science writer.


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